Viqhi Aswie, Wamaungo Juma Abdu


The post-COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in learning loss in almost all subjects, including science learning. In addition, there is a decrease in motivation in capturing learning. In contrast, 21st-century education demands literacy skills accompanied by competencies and characters that lead to lifelong learning. Therefore, services in the form of technology that can improve students' skills and interests are needed, one of which is using virtual reality. This technology is believed to be a future asset that can help students construct their cognitive structures. Thus, this study aims to examine the use of virtual reality technology in improving meaningful learning in science learning at school. The method used in this study is a qualitative method with a descriptive approach through a literature review of Google Scholar and Scopus-indexed journals.  The data that has been collected is analyzed by correlating the relationship between the use of virtual reality with meaningful learning in science subjects. After that, it ends by elaborating on the ideas in this article. Based on studies that have been conducted, it is found that virtual reality is a 3D technology that helps visualize science concepts that combine the real and virtual worlds (immersive) so that learning is more interactive. Despite its great potential, this technology should be used as a supporting tool, not a substitute for human interaction in learning. Virtual reality can also create meaningful learning by directly involving students in constructing their cognitive structures related to facts, concepts, procedures, and metacognition. In addition, this technology is also able to integrate science concepts that were previously fragmented to be integrated comprehensively through 3D virtual simulations. This will help create meaningful learning because students can understand science concepts comprehensively by connecting their experiences to real learning materials through immersive technology.


Keywords: Immerse Technology; Meaningful Learning; Science Subject; Virtual Reality

Full Text:



Barry, D. M., & Kanematsu, H. (2022). Virtual reality enhances active student learning. Procedia Computer Science, 207(Kes), 408–415.

Barry, D. M., Kanematsu, H., Ogawa, N., & McGrath, P. (2021). Technologies for teaching during a pandemic. Procedia Computer Science, 192, 1583–1590.

Blascovich, J., Loomis, J., Beall, A. C., Swinth, K. R., Hoyt, C. L., & Bailenson, J. N. (2002). Immersive virtual environment technology as a methodological tool for social psychology. Psychological Inquiry, 13(2), 103–124.

Chiquet, S., Martarelli, C. S., Weibel, D., & Mast, F. W. (2023). Learning by teaching in immersive virtual reality – Absorption tendency increases learning outcomes. Learning and Instruction, 84(September 2022), 101716.

Christopoulos, A., Conrad, M., & Shukla, M. (2018). Increasing student engagement through virtual interactions: How? Virtual Reality, 22(4), 353–369.

Cook, M., Lischer-Katz, Z., Hall, N., Hardesty, J., Johnson, J., McDonald, R., & Carlisle, T. (2019). Challenges and strategies for educational virtual reality: Results of an expert-led forum on 3D/VR technologies across academic institutions. Information Technology and Libraries, 38(4), 25–48.

Cuesta Cambra, Dr. U., & Mañas Viniegra, L. (2016). Integración de la realidad virtual inmersiva en los Grados de Comunicación. Revista ICONO14. Revista Científica de Comunicación y Tecnologías Emergentes, 14(2), 1.

Fransson, G., Holmberg, J., & Westelius, C. (2020). The challenges of using head-mounted virtual reality in K-12 schools from a teacher perspective. Education and Information Technologies, 25(4), 3383–3404.

Gar Chi, P., Zaffwan Idris, M., & Nugrahani, R. (2021). Virtual Reality (VR) in the 21st. Century Education: The Opportunities and Challenges of Digital Learning in Classroom. 1(2), 105–110.

Hadjipanayi, C., & Michael-Grigoriou, D. (2020). Conceptual knowledge and sensitization on Asperger’s syndrome based on the constructivist approach through virtual reality. Heliyon, 6(6).

Huang, C. L., Luo, Y. F., Yang, S. C., Lu, C. M., & Chen, A. S. (2020). Influence of Students’ Learning Style, Sense of Presence, and Cognitive Load on Learning Outcomes in an Immersive Virtual Reality Learning Environment. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 58(3), 596–615.

Ivanov, Jessica, P., Salim, S., Syahputra, M. E., & Suri, P. A. (2023). A Systematic literature review on implementation of virtual reality for learning. Procedia Computer Science, 216(2022), 260–265.

Jakubowski, M., Gajderowicz, T., & Patrinos, H. A. (2023). Global learning loss in student achievement: First estimates using comparable reading scores. Economics Letters, 232, 111313.

Laseinde, O. T., & Dada, D. (2023). Enhancing teaching and learning in STEM Labs: The development of an android-based virtual reality platform. Materials Today: Proceedings.

Lawrence, R., Ching, L. F., & Abdullah, H. (2019). Strengths and Weaknesses of Education 4.0 in the Higher Education Institution. International Journal of Innovative Technology and Exploring Engineering, 9(2S3), 511–519.

Lennox, J., Reuge, N., & Benavides, F. (2021). UNICEF’s lessons learned from the education response to the COVID-19 crisis and reflections on the implications for education policy. International Journal of Educational Development, 85(December 2020).

Mayer, R. E. (2002). Rote versus Meaningful Learning. Theory Into Practice, 41(4), 226–232.

Mcguire, C. (2018). Transforming Traditional Teaching Practices with 21st Century Skills in K-12 Classrooms.

Miles, M. B., Huberman, A. M., & Saldaäna, J. (2014). Qualitative data analysis: A methods sourcebook (Third edition.). SAGE Publications, Inc.

Molina-Carmona, R., Pertegal-Felices, M. L., Jimeno-Morenilla, A., & Mora-Mora, H. (2018). Virtual Reality learning activities for multimedia students to enhance spatial ability. Sustainability (Switzerland), 10(4).

Monova-Zheleva, M. (2015). Uses of the Virtual World for Educational Purposes. СпиÑание „Компютърни Ðауки и Комуникации, 4(2), 106–122.

National Research Council. (2012). A framework for K-12 science education: Practices, crosscutting concepts, and core ideas. In A Framework for K-12 Science Education: Practices, Crosscutting Concepts, and Core Ideas. National Academies Press.

Oke, A., & Fernandes, F. A. P. (2020). Innovations in teaching and learning: Exploring the perceptions of the education sector on the 4th industrial revolution (4IR). Journal of Open Innovation: Technology, Market, and Complexity, 6(2).

Plotnick, E. (1997). Concept Mapping: A Graphical System for Understanding the Relationship between Concepts.

Prawira, Y. A., Ayundari, V. L., & Kurnia, T. (2021). Exploring Students’ Affective on Using Asynchronous Learning During the Pandemic Period. Jurnal Pendidikan Islam, 7(1), 33–50.

Pringle, J. K., Stimpson, I. G., Jeffery, A. J., Wisniewski, K. D., Grossey, T., Hobson, L., Heaton, V., Zholobenko, V., & Rogers, S. L. (2022). Extended reality (XR) virtual practical and educational eGaming to provide effective immersive environments for learning and teaching in forensic science. Science and Justice, 62(6), 696–707.

Radianti, J., Majchrzak, T. A., Fromm, J., & Wohlgenannt, I. (2020). A systematic review of immersive virtual reality applications for higher education: Design elements, lessons learned, and research agenda. Computers and Education, 147.

Rahmah, N. (2013). Belajar Bermakna Ausubel. Al-Khwarizmi, I, 43–48.

Recch, F., Petherick, A., Hinton, R., Nagesh, R., Furst, R., & Goldszmidt, R. (2023). Education data needs and challenges for building back from COVID-19. Epidemics, 43(April 2022), 100673.

Renstrom, L., Andersson, B., & Marton, F. (1990). Students’ Conceptions of Matter. In Journal of Educational Psychology (Vol. 82, Issue 3).

Scott, C. L. (2015). The futures of learning 3: what kind of pedagogies for the 21st century? (15)

Sejzi, A. A., & Aris, B. bin. (2012). Constructivist Approach in Virtual Universities. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 56, 426–431.

Shin, N., Jonassen, D. H., & McGee, S. (2003). Predictors of well-structured and ill-structured problem solving in an astronomy simulation. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 40(1), 6–33.

Sirhan, G. (2007). Learning Difficulties in Chemistry: An Overview. Turkish Science Education, 4(2), 2–19.

Stevens, S. Y., Shin, N., & Peek-Brown, D. (2013). Learning progressions as a guide for developing meaningful science learning: A new framework for old ideas. In Learning Progressions in Chemistry] Educ. quím (Vol. 24, Issue 4).

Stošić, L. (2015). The importance of educational technology in teaching. International Journal of Cognitive Research in Science, Engineering and Education, 3(1), 111–114.

Suri, P. A., Syahputra, M. E., Amany, A. S. H., & Djafar, A. (2023). Systematic literature review: The use of virtual reality as a learning media. Procedia Computer Science, 216(2022), 245–251.

Villena-Taranilla, R., Tirado-Olivares, S., Cózar-Gutiérrez, R., & González-Calero, J. A. (2022a). Effects of virtual reality on learning outcomes in K-6 education: A meta-analysis. Educational Research Review, 35(December 2021).

Villena-Taranilla, R., Tirado-Olivares, S., Cózar-Gutiérrez, R., & González-Calero, J. A. (2022b). Effects of virtual reality on learning outcomes in K-6 education: A meta-analysis. Educational Research Review, 35.

Wrahatnolo, T., & Munoto. (2018). 21st centuries skill implication on educational system. IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, 296(1).

Yarrow, N., Masood, E., & Afkar, R. (2020). Estimates of COVID-19 Impacts on Learning and Earning in Indonesia. World Bank, Jakarta, August.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2023 Viqhi Aswie, Wamaungo Juma Abdu

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.